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2001年度 2002年度 2006年度 a
Singapore Canada Canada
HongKong Japan California
SouthKorea California Malaysia
Ebonics Taiwan
China 1 Korea
China 2
Spain
Immigrants
Practicum

Presentation Singapore

Theme: The Introduction of the English Education in Singapore (in the past, the present and the future)

1.Introduction of the present Singapore
(1)The basic features of Singapore: 647.5km(small) ← Multicultural country(多文化)
About 4 million people-Multiracial country(多民族/人種)
    <Chinese(76.8%), Malay(13.9%), Tamil(7.9%),others(1.4%) >
Religion; Buddhism, Islam, Christianity, Hinduism and other religion
Multilingual country-33 language(dialects) ⇒Polyglossia(多言語変種使い分け)

(2)The basic policy of Singapore;@Fine city-very strict rules
ABilingual policy(2言語政策)
   ・National language(国語); Malay→as a symbol
   ・Four official language; Chinese , Tamil, Malay and English→Dominant language
     (4つの公用語)                  (最も優勢な言語)  
※Why is English dominant language in Singapore?-6 reasons
@              A             B         →For Economy
C D             E →For Ethnicity


2. Historical background of Singapore (Esp.Linguistic policy)

-1819 Singapore started to be Multiracial country, trading point

(Chinese dominance or English dominance)
-1954 PAP(People's Action Party;人民行動党)was founded
-1959 Lee Kuan Yew's policy(リー・クァンユー); Bilingual policy
-1965 Independence of Singapore from Malaysia
     Bilingual policy→Promotion of English education

-1986~7 Reformation of education→The Abolishment of other language school→only English Medium School
(Tamil/Mandarin/Malaty-medium schools)
now

3.1 Present educational system
Present educational policy: Bilingual education to be English speaking elites=Meritocratism(エリート主義)

@Elementary education-・fundamental stage ←intensive language education
  ・Orientation stage…EM1/ EM2/ EM3 (they are divided into 3 courses)  
  PSLE(Primary School Leaving Exam)(改良版初等学校卒業試験) is held at 6year

ASecondary education-(1) Special course (2)Express course  → GCE Ordinary-level(普通教育終了証)
(3)Normal course (technical /academic course) → GCE Normal-level

B Higher Education-(1)Junior college                →GCE-Advanced level
(2)Polytechnics (科学技術訓練学校) etc

CUniversity Education(1)National Singapore University (2)Nang-Tang Technical University
3.2 Problems (C.Nishimura) of the present educational system
@ Meritocratism grab the future of the students who have artistic talent and who failed even once
(Government provide a good environment for students who got good score at practical subjects;esp. Language)

A Singapore students are suffering from high pressure of the exams
(Some of the wealthy family make their children gone abroad in order to make them release from the stress)

B Multiracial and Multi-religious country makes class-activity difficult;deculturalization(文化の崩壊)
 (Teachers and the government do not know what kind of texts are suitable for them.)

→≪Discussion Points≫
 What do you think of these three problems? Is there any ways to solve these problems?

4 Another problem; Singapore English; Singlish
@what is Singlish? -three types of Singlish  

≪high educated≫
 -Asolect(上級方言)…Similar to British Standard English

-Mesolect(中級方言)

-Basilect(基層方言)…Quite different from British SE

≪low educated≫

@ Feature of Singlish…Pay attention to the demonstration
・ Grammar
・ Pronunciation
・ Words (Lexically)   
A The present governmental policy
【A/T Asahi News Paper 1/22/00】
"Singapore government stated to eliminate Singlish from Singapore. Because Singlish can not be
intelligible for the foreigners. Government started to teach English grammar for school teachers "

≪Discussion point≫
 What do you think of this action? How should we treat a variety of English?

5. Malay's linguistic policy (K.Yamamoto)
Malaysia Government took the policy of "Bumi Putra Policy"(マレー人優遇政策;ブミプトラ)
                    →opposite direction of Singapore
《Reference》
アジアの英語 Variety of English in Asia 本名信行編 第5章 シンガポールの英語(中村良比廣)
シンガポールの言語と社会 1,3,8章
英語教育 Nov.97' シンガポールの英語教育
アジア政治読本 岩崎育夫《東洋経済新報社》
The cultural Politics of English as an International Language:The Wildliness of English in Singapore(7)
English Today 65,vol7,No.1 The polemics of Singlish
English Today 38,vol 10,No.2 The truth about Sinapore English
http://www.clair.nippon-net.ne.jp/HTML_J/FORUM/GYOSEI/075/INDEX.HTM
http://www.ovta.or.jp/sin/sin-t002.htm 他


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Hong Kong
<Theme>
The problems of English education in Hong Kong

<Introduction>
・ Brief introduction of the history of the Hong Kong
・ About the education of the history of Hong Kong
(About English education, two kinds of junior high school)

<Body>
・ Changing of language policy in Hong Kong
・ Status of English
・ Effect of the policy and its problems
・ Mixed language ("U-Gay-Wa")
・ Hong Kong People's attitude for English, Cantonese and Mixed language

<Conclusion>
・ What could be problems of English education in Hong Kong?
・ What happens if English becomes a second official language in Japan?

<Key Words>
・ EMI School (English as Medium of Instruction School) 英文中学
・ CMI School (Chinese as Medium of Instruction School) 中文中学
・ Cantonese 広東語
・ Pekingese 北京語
・ "U-Gay-Wa" U記話(香港大学特有の広英混合語)
・ total academic level 全体的な学力のレベル
・ arrogant 傲慢な

<References>
・ 『揺れ動く香港の言語』金丸芙美 月刊言語1996年9月号vol.25
・ 『香港の英語教育の現状と問題』
The Language Teacher 1998 vol.22 No.11 全国語学教育学会誌
・ 『アジアの英語事情』大和洋子 The English Teachers' Magazine July 2000


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The comparison of the English teaching between Korea and Japan

Introduction
The economic backgrounds and the history of Korean English teaching and their effort
― Korea has rapidly developed in economic recently. The backgrounds are their eagerness of English teaching.

Body
・The English teaching at Korean elementary school
The Korean elementary school pupils learn more than 500 English words.
・The basic ideology of the Ministry of Education in Korea
The present ideology; “invention and the pioneering mind”, “the national cooperate mind to prioritize the nation”, and ”Anti-Communism, the patriotism, the mind to love the nation”
・The comparison of Korea and Japanese textbooks
― The amount, the number of compulsory words, what each textbook treats as a topic, the composition
In Korean textbooks
----- The importance of speaking and listening
Many dialogs and specific contexts to develop ”practical English”

Conclusion
・Summarizing the comparison of the English teaching between Korea and Japan
・The English teaching reformation

We have many things to learn from Korea. And each of us must think about the Educational Reformation (which is done in 2002) more seriously and carefully.

Keywords
・extracurricular subject ― 課外科目
・compulsory ― 必修の
・the Carter of the National Education (?) ― 国民教育憲章
・Anti-Communism ― 反共
・patriotism ― 愛国心
・the Educational Reformation ― 2002年度から学習指導要領が改められ、授業数も削減されること。教育改革。

 References 
・『アジアの英語』 本名信行編 くろしお出版
・『東アジアの外国語教育・日本の外国語教育診断』 JACET関西支部著
・韓国の英語教科書、国民教育憲章
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