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A Good Man is Hard to FindThe Assistant

「英米の小説b」(島田)受講者へ(September 27, 2003)




1) "Here, ca_____________." He hit. They went away across the pasture. I held to the fence and watched them going away.
    "Listen at you, now." Luster said. "Aint you something, thirty three years old, going on that way....Hush up that moaning...."

2) I give it to you not that you may remember ti_____________, but that you might forget it now and then for a moment and not spend all your breath trying to conquer it. Because no battle is ever won he said.


1) [caddie] ゴルフ場でプレイしている男がキャディーを呼んだことにBenjyが反応してうめき声を上げて、子守役のLusterにたしなめられている場面。姉のCaddyと発音が同じ"caddie"という音声に白痴のBenjyは反応している。勘当されたCaddyの名を口にすることはCompson家では禁止されているので、Benjyは愛する姉の名前を聞くためにかっては家の放牧場であったゴルフ場に行き姉を懐かしむのだ。

2) [time] Quentinの章の冒頭部分で、Quentinが父から懐中時計を譲り受けたときに言われた言葉を回想している箇所。Quentinにとり妹Caddyの処女喪失と「時間」を克服することは強迫観念となっているが、Mr. Compsonは時間を克服することは不可能であり、忘れようとするしかない、と彼に言っている。これは、Caddyの処女喪失に関しても言えるであろう。





  20世紀最大と言われるアメリカの小説家William Faulknerについて彼の代表作The Sound and the Furyを中心に学びます。



William Faulkner, The Sound and the Fury(Penguin他)




  受動的に講義をただ聴くのではなく、Reading Assignment(課題)をこなし、積極的に発言することが求められます。


  1. 授業の説明。概説:モダニズムとFaulknerとThe Sound and the Fury
  2. 第1章 April Seventh, 1928 (1): 「意識の流れ」とBenjy
  3. 第1章 April Seventh, 1928 (2): BenjyとCaddy
  4. 第1章 April Seventh, 1928 (3): BenjyとCaddy: 象徴としてのBenjy
  5. 第1章 April Seventh, 1928 (4): Benjy,Quentin, Jason:Compson家の3兄弟
  6. 第2章 June Second, 1910 (1): Quentinと時間
  7. 第2章 June Second, 1910 (2) : QuentinとCaddy
  8. 第2章 June Second, 1910 (3) : Quentinと死
  9. 第3章 April Sixth, 1928 (1): JasonとCaddyの娘とMrs. Compson
  10. 第3章 April Sixth, 1928 (2) : JasonとCaddyとQuentin(Caddyの娘)
  11. 第4章 April Eighth, 1928 (1) : DilseyとFaulkner: Faulknerの黒人観
  12. 第4章 April Eighth, 1928 (2) : DilseyとBenjyが意味するもの:結論


  1. the hypertext edition of The Sound and the Fury : 最初の授業で紹介したThe Sound and the Furyに関するイチオシのサイトです。このサイトできちんと勉強すれば授業に出てこなくても大丈夫かも・・・(-_-;)
  2. William Faulkner on the Web : シラバスで紹介したFaulknerに関する膨大なサイトです。未完ですが、この作家に関するさまざまな情報を得ることができます。
  3. The William Faulkner Foundation : フランスの英語サイトです。The Sound and the Furyのコンパクトなglossary, character listなどが役に立つと思います。


Week 12(12/17): The Sound and the Fury, 第4章"April Eighth, 1928"の冒頭部分(pp. 265-275 特にp. 274のBenjyの描写:She heard the feet cross the diningroom, then the swing door opened and Luster entered, followed by a big man who appeared to have been shaped of some substance whose particles would not or did not cohere to one another or to the frame which supported it. His skin was dead looking and hairless; dropsical too, he moved with a shambling gait like a trained bear. His hair was pale and fine. It had been brushed smoothly down upon his brow like that of children in daguerrotypes. His eyes were clear, of the pale sweet blue of cornflowers, his thick mouth hung open, drooling a little. ): Easterの朝のMrs. CompsonとDilseyの様子。JasonがQuentinにカネを持ち逃げされたことに気づく場面(pp. 277-285 特にp. 282のQuentinの部屋の描写:They went in. It was not a girl's room. It was not anybody's room, and the faint scent of cheap cosmetics and the few feminine objects and the other evidences of crude and hopeless efforts to feminise it but added to its anonymity, giving it that dead and stereotyped transience of rooms in assignation houses. The bed had not been disturbed. On the floor lay a soiled undergarment of cheap silk a little too pink, from a half open bureau drawer dangled a single stocking. The window was open. A pear tree grew there, close against the house. )。黒人教会でのEasterの礼拝場面(pp. 293-297 特にp. 297のDilseyの様子:Dilsey made no sound, her face did not quiver as the tears took their sunken and devious courses, walking with her head up, making no effort to dry them away even. "Whyn't you quit dat, mammy?" Frony said. "Wid all dese people lookin. We be passin white folks soon." "I've seed de first en de last," Dilsey said. "Never you mind me." "First en last whut?" Frony said. "Never you mind," Dilsey said. "I seed de beginnin, en now I sees de endin.")。[p. 311の「目」と]結末部分(pp. 316-321 特にp. 321からの広場の場面:They approached the square, where the Confederate soldier gazed with empty eyes beneath his marble hand in wind and weather.... For an instant Ben sat in an utter hiatus. Then he bellowed. Bellow on bellow, his voice mounted, with scarce interval for breath. There was more than astonishment in it, it was horror; shock; agony eyeless, tongueless... Ben's voice roared and roared. Queenie moved again, her feet began to clop-clop steadily again, and at once Ben hushed. Luster looked quickly back over his shoulder, then he drove on. The broken flower drooped over Ben's fist and his eyes were empty and blue and serene again as cornice and faĉade flowed smoothly once more from left to right, post and tree, window and doorway and signboard each in its ordered place. )。

Week 11(12/10): The Sound and the Fury, 第3章"April Sixth, 1928" Jasonの皮肉: " Harvard they teach you how to go for a swim at night without knowing how to swim...", " can send Ben to the Navy I says or to the cavalry anyway, they use geldings in the cavalry." (p. 196) Mrs. Compsonの生家Bascomb家に対する誇りとJasonへの溺愛: "thank God you are not a Compson except in name..." (p. 196) Mr. Compsonの葬儀直後のエピソード(pp. 202-210): JasonのCaddyに対するひどい仕打ち。そのJasonについてのDilseyの痛烈なコメント: "You's a cold man, Jason, if man you is," she says. "I thank de Lawd I got mo heart dan dat, even ef hit is black." (pp. 207-208) JasonがQuentinに送られた為替をせしめる場面(pp. 212-215): 母と同様娘のカネもだまし取るJason。母親の愛を金額で量ろうとする不幸なQuentin: "I just want to look at it [the money order]. Whatever it says, I wont ask for but ten dollars. You can have the rest. I just want to see it." (p. 215) 古い小切手帳を探しCaddyの小切手を偽造するJason (p. 216) とその小切手を本物と信じて燃やすMrs. Compson: "We Bascombs need nobody's charity. Certainly not that of a fallen woman." (p. 220) この章の最終部分(pp. 258-264): 午後Quentinとshowの男を追いかけ回し出し抜かれたことをとぼけるJason: "No. I loaned my car to a fellow about three oclock..." (p. 258)。Quentinのすさんだ心: "If I'm bad, it's because I had to be. You made me. I wish I was dead. I wish we were all dead." (p. 260)。 Jasonの「時間」克服法?: "Whether or not she was in school today is already past," I says. "If you've got to worry about it, worry about next Monday." (p. 260)。Mrs. CompsonのQuentin(息子)とCaddyに対する嫌悪、Jasonへの溺愛、それを皮肉るJason (p. 260-262): JasonのCaddyへの憎悪を決定的にした不意になった銀行員の仕事(p. 262)。"Great American Gelding" (p. 263) =Benjy、南北戦争で「去勢された」南部の象徴?次週の課題: 第4章"April Eighth, 1928"の冒頭部分(pp. 265-275 特にp. 274のBenjyの描写): Easterの朝のMrs. CompsonとDilseyの様子。JasonがQuentinにカネを持ち逃げされたことに気づく場面(pp. 277-285 特にp. 282のQuentinの部屋の描写)。黒人教会でのEasterの礼拝場面(pp. 293-297 特にp. 297のDilseyの様子)。[p. 311の「目」と]結末部分(pp. 316-321 特にp. 321からの広場の場面)を読む。

Week 10(12/03): The Sound and the Fury, 第3章"April Sixth, 1928"の冒頭部分(pp. 180-189)。Jasonの章のstream of consciousnessの特徴:Jasonは現実的な人間なので、独り言(内的独白)に近く、分かりやすい。家庭崩壊、Mrs. Compsonの責任大、Jasonの歪んだ性格(同情の余地もある?)、Quentin(Caddyの娘)のすさんだ性格と生活。唯一の救い、Dilsey。次週の課題: 第3章"April Sixth, 1928"のMr. Compsonの葬儀の直後(pp. 202-210)、JasonがQuentinに送られたCaddyからの為替をせしめる場面(pp. 212-215)、この章の最終部分(pp. 258-264)を読む。

Week 9(11/26): The Sound and the Fury, 第2章最後の2パラグラフ(pp. 176-179)、Caddyについての父との対話。近親相姦:" wouldnt have felt driven to the expedient of telling me you had committed incest other wise [and I] i wasnt lying [and he] you wanted to sublimate a piece of natural human folly into a horror and then exorcise it with truth [and I] it was to isolate her out of the loud world so that it would have to flee us of necessity and then the sound of it would be as though it had never been..." 時間("was"=名詞): ...was the saddest word of all[.] there is nothing else in the world[.] its not despair until time[.] it[']s not even time until it was" (p. 178)、死に赴くQuentinの最後の様子。" I didn't have to open the bag any more." (p. 179) Quentinは死ぬことによって、時間を静止・克服する。次週の課題: 第3章"April Sixth, 1928"の冒頭部分(pp. 180-189)を読む。現在のCompson家の朝食前後の様子。

Week 8(11/19): The Sound and the Fury, 第2章"June Second, 1910"のQuentinのもっとも深層部分の記憶(pp. 148-164) QuentinとCaddy。picnic中に錯乱するQuentin。Caddyの処女喪失、Dalton Ames、近親相姦への強迫観念。次週の課題: 第2章"June Second, 1910"の第2章最後の2パラグラフ(pp. 176-179)を読む。

Week 7(11/12): The Sound and the Fury, 第2章"June Second, 1910"の冒頭部分(pp. 76-80) Quentinと時間。次週の課題: 第2章"June Second, 1910"のQuentinのもっとも深層部分の記憶(pp. 148-164)と第2章最後のパラグラフ(pp. 178-179)を読む。

Week 6(11/05): The Sound and the Fury, 第1章"April Seventh, 1928"の「現在」(Present, April 7, 1928)(Kondoさん)の残り, pp. 70-75. If you don't like the way we eat, you'd better not come to the table, Jason said. (p. 70) QuentinとJasonの確執。第1章のまとめ、Benjyにとっての「現在」、白痴であるが故の時間の克服とinnocence。第2章"June Second, 1910"の概略と冒頭部分(pp. 76-80) Quentinと時間。次週の課題: 第2章"June Second, 1910"の冒頭部分とQuentinのもっとも深層部分の記憶部分(pp. 148-164)を読む。

Week 5(10/29): The Sound and the Fury, "April Seventh, 1928", pp. 22-75. Dammuddyの葬式の日(Asomaさん)。 "Let me mind me tonight, Father." (p. 24) Caddyの性格。暗闇での会話(p. 27) "That's niggers. White folks dont have funerals."(p. 27) 白人は死なない!死をまだ知らない「楽園」状態。A snake crawled out from under the house.(p. 37) "Your paw told you to stay out that tree"....He went and pushed Caddy up into the tree...We watched the muddy bottom of her drawers. (p. 39) Then the dark began to go in smooth, bright shapes...(p. 75) 「楽園喪失」神話とのパラレル。「現在」(Kondoさん)。Miss Quentin and her beau in the swing yonder.... (p. 46) "Agnes Mabel Becky"...."They comes every night she can climb down that tree." (p. 50) 成長したCaddyの娘Quentinと"show"で働く"red necktie"男、"Beller. You want something to beller about. All right, then. Caddy." he whispered. "Caddy. Beller now. Caddy." いたずら小僧Luster、My hand jerked back and I put it in my mouth... (p. 59) Benjyの火傷。"What did I tell you I was going to do if I saw you with that show fellow again." (p. 67) If you don't like the way we eat, you'd better not come to the table, Jason said. (p. 70) QuentinとJasonの確執。次週の課題: 第1章"April Seventh, 1928"の「現在」(Present, April 7, 1928)(Kondoさん)の残りと第2章"June Second, 1910"の冒頭部分(pp. 76-80)を読む。

Week 4(10/15): The Sound and the Fury, "April Seventh, 1928", pp. 14-22. Benjyの最も古い記憶はDammuddyの葬式の日に小川"branch"で遊んだ思い出。 "She was wet." (p. 17) Caddyの将来を予兆? "I'll run away and never come back." Caddy said....Caddy was all wet and muddy behind and I started to cry....Caddy smelled like trees in the rain." (p. 19) Caddyの純潔と将来の汚れを予兆。BenjyはMauryと呼ばれていた。Compson家の子供たちの見事な性格描写。葬式と結婚式の並置。次週の課題: 第1章"April Seventh, 1928"のDammuddy's Deathの残り(Asomaさん)と「現在」(Present, April 7, 1928)(Kondoさん)を中心に読む。

Week 3(10/8): The Sound and the Fury, "April Seventh, 1928", pp. 6-14. Benjyと時間の概念(Benjyにとっては彼の意識のある時点が常に「現在」)。BenjyとCaddy ("She smelled like leaves/trees"の意味)。"the bright shapes"と南軍兵士の像がある町の広場。Uncle Maury's love letter (his affair with Mrs. Patterson)次週の課題: 第1章"April Seventh, 1928", pp. 14-19, pp. 19 (She was wet.からのDammuddy's Deathを中心に読む)-20(Roskus was milking the cow in the barn door.), pp. 22 (At the top of the hill...)-28(I like to smell Versh's house.), pp. 32(Frony and T.P. were playing in the dirt by the door.)-33(and the buzzards came and undressed her.), pp. 35("Do you think buzzards are going to undress Damuddy." Caddy said. )-39("What you seeing." Frony whispered.), pp. 45(We looked up into the tree where she was.)-46(We went around the kitchen.), pp. 72(She smelled like trees.)-75.

Week 2(10/1): The Sound and the Fury, "April Seventh, 1928", pp. 3-6. Benjyとstream of consciousness。the hypertext edition of The Sound and the Furyの使い方。次週の課題: 第1章"April Seventh, 1928", pp. 6-19 (...Caddy smelled like trees in the rain.まで)。

Week 1(9/24): 授業概要・評価方法の説明。概説:モダニズムとFaulknerとThe Sound and the Fury。3人の兄弟が1人の妹(姉)について語る形式の章構成。水遊びでパンツを汚した少女が木に登り屋敷の部屋の中を覗き込む姿とその彼女を心配そうに見上げる兄弟たちの「イメージ」が作者によるとこの小説の発端?配布物: なし。次週の課題: 第1章"April Seventh, 1928"の冒頭から"She was wet..."で始まる小川 (branch) での水遊びシーンの最後(短いイタリック体のパラグラフの直前"....Caddy smelled like trees in the rain.")まで読むこと。

A Good Man is Hard to FindThe Assistant